In machine learning, support vector machines (SVMs, also support vector networks) are supervised learning models with associated learning algorithms that analyze data and recognize patterns, used for classification and regression analysis. Given a set of training examples, each marked as belonging to one of two categories, a SVM training algorithm builds a model that assigns new examples into one category or the other, making it a non-probabilistic binary linear classifier. A SVM model is a representation of the examples as points in space, mapped so that the examples of the separate categories are divided by a clear gap that is as wide as possible. New examples are then mapped into that same space and predicted to belong to a category based on which side of the gap they fall on.
In addition to performing linear classification, SVMs can efficiently perform a non-linear classification using what is called the kernel trick, implicitly mapping their inputs into high-dimensional feature spaces.
SVMs can be used to solve various real world problems:
– SVMs are helpful in text and hypertext categorization as their application can significantly reduce the need for labeled training instances in both the standard inductive and transductive settings.
– Classification of images can also be performed using SVMs. Experimental results show that SVMs achieve significantly higher search accuracy than traditional query refinement schemes after just three to four rounds of relevance feedback.
– SVMs are also useful in medical science to classify proteins with up to 90% of the compounds classified correctly.
– Hand-written characters can be recognized using SVM
Support vector regression can solve both linear and non-linear models. SVM uses non-linear kernel functions (such as polynomial) to find the optimal solution for non-linear models.
The main idea of SVR is to minimize error, individualizing the hyperplane which maximizes the margin.
svr.model <- svm(Y ~ X , data) pred <- predict(svr.model, data) points(data$X, pred, col = “red”, pch=4)